Ladders, stars and triangles: old and new theory for the practice of public participation

The practice of public participation has remarkably little theory it can call its own. This paper considers the best-known theory – the Ladder of Participation – and updates it to reflect changes in thinking since the original ladder was published.
  

Ladders, Stars and Triangles: Old and New Theory for the Practice of Public Participation

John MayMiddlesex Business School and the Metropolitan Police Authority

INTRODUCTION

The practice of public participation has remarkably little theory it...