Introduction

Web surveys have become a widely adopted approach for data collection in many fields due to their low costs and efficiency. Nevertheless, due to the high competition for respondents' time and attention, web survey companies are struggling to recruit Web respondents, keep them engaged in online surveys, and ensure adequate data quality. One possible avenue to ameliorate these threats is through the use of innovative survey designs. Interest in this area is apparent in the attention that concepts like gamification (see for review Keusch & Zhang, 2015) have received or the increased interest in esthetics in the human computer interaction literature (e.g., Lavie & Tractinsky, 2004; Lindgaard, Fernandes, Dudek, & Brown, 2006; Norman, 2008).

One important visual aspect of Web surveys that could be changed to improve the experience of respondents is the design of response scales. Traditionally, HTML code allowed the use of radio buttons for responses with mutually exclusive categories (Couper, 2008). An early alternative to this approach has been the drop-down menu (Couper, Tourangeau, Conrad, & Crawford, 2004) while more recently slider questions and visual analog scales (VAS) have been proposed (Funke, Reips, & Thomas, 2011; Liu, 2017a). Nevertheless, radio buttons have remained the standard approach to collecting answers to close-ended questions in online surveys.