Correlation, causation and smoking in action among youths

Expanded consideration of a variety of concepts and methods, from associative learning to econometrics, lends further support to the accumulated consensus that tobacco advertising plays a role, with other factors, in inducing young people to smoke.

Correlation, Causation, And Smoking Initiation Among Youths

Marvin E. Goldberg Penn State University

TRIANGULATION AND CAUSALITY

In critiquing my article 'American Media and the Smoking-related Behavior of Asian Adoles­cents' (Goldberg. 2003). both...