New and disruptive brands have always been part of the fabric of marketing. As long as brands have existed, there have been challengers chipping away at them, trying to carve out a territory for themselves. But it's not simply as binary as The Establishment vs. The Disruptor. There's a third way, where you don't have to break the system to chart your own course.

In this article, we'll look at three brands in the context of what we know about neuroscience and consumer decision making, to understand how they each – in totally different sectors – have managed to shape their own path, despite limited budgets and resources.

Where there's a stable establishment, there's usually also a big swinging target, like a flashing sign saying 'money to be made'. There's almost always someone taking aim; someone without the money or resources to follow the well-trodden path of the tried and tested. Someone with just as much need to make the sale, but with an even greater need to find a new way to do it (usually a faster or cheaper way). Because it's when your options are really limited that creativity and innovation really have to hit the mark. The best ideas are often born out of adversity – in garages and under ticking clocks.