Accounting for causality when measuring sales lift from television advertising: Television campaigns are shown to be more effective for lighter brand users

Establishing causality has long been an issue in the advertising-to-sales relationship. The ideal approach in establishing causality is randomized assignment of matched respondents to an exposure and non-exposure group.
Assael, Ishihara and Kim


  • Refined methods of statistical matching are an effective substitute for experimentation in accounting for causality in the television advertising-to-sales relationship.
  • Such matching must account for both demogr
Next, several interaction terms are added in Equation 1 as follows, using the top 50 percent as an example:

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