Llonch-Andreu et al.

How local/global is your brand? A technique to assess brand categorisation

Joan Llonch-Andreu

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Miguel Ángel López-Lomelí and Jorge Eduardo Gómez-Villanueva

Tecnológico de Monterrey


In the past two decades, we have seen a strong globalisation of the marketplace (Alden et al. 2006; Özsomer et al. 2012). Along with this globalisation, we have seen the emergence of global brands (Dimofte et al. 2010; Özsomer 2012). Even a cursory comparison on total brand value of the 100 most valuable global brands between 2006 and 2015 shows that brand value has increased dramatically, by 126%, from $1.4 trillion to $3.3 trillion (BrandZ 2015). Managers may value global brands because of the economic, marketing and organisational advantages global brands bring to the company (Steenkamp 2014). However, that is not the entire story. Previous research has shown that a brand benefits from consumer perceptions that it is ‘global’ (Steenkamp et al. 2003; Davvetas et al. 2015). To many consumers, global availability and acceptance is taken as evidence that the brand has to be of high quality, is more prestigious, or is symbolic of the emerging global consumer culture with its promise of progress and modernity (Steenkamp 2014). This leads to increased consumer preference, purchase likelihood and willingness to pay a premium price (Steenkamp et al. 2003; Davvetas et al. 2015).