Competing for consumer memory in television advertising: an empirical examination of the impacts of non-editorial clutter on brand memory in mega-event broadcasts

Yongick Jeong

Louisiana State University

Yeuseung Kim

DePaul University

Xinshu Zhao

University of North Carolina


Ads in a commercial break compete for audiences’ attention and memory (Zhao 1997). Thus, when advertising competition becomes intense due to an increase in the number of ads in a pod, this competition will generate negative influence on the overall success of television advertising (Claggett 1986; Ray & Webb 1986; Zhao 1997). This assumption has been confirmed by numerous researchers who find that cramped clutter causes less audience attention to the commercials while increasing viewer confusion (Ray & Webb 1986; Zhao 1997; Elliott & Speck 1998). Thus, clutter has been a concern for marketers, particularly in television advertising that commonly involves substantial financial investment (Mandese 1991; Kent 1995; Creamer 2007).