Evolution in the usage of localised appeals in Japanese and American print advertising

Shintaro Okazaki
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Barbara Mueller
San Diego State University


A value is defined as 'an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an alternate mode of conduct or end-state of existence' (Rokeach 1968, p. 129). Values guide our attitudes, judgements and ultimately our actions. A culture's values are transmitted by a variety of sources (family, media, school, church and state), and tend to be broad-based, enduring and relatively stable (Samovar et al. 1998). However, cultures are dynamic systems that do not exist in a vacuum, and thus are subject to change. And, because cultures change, so also do the values of those cultures. Pollay (1983) notes that a society's set of values, though resistant to change, has never been totally stable over time. The value system of every culture is open to influences from other value systems and a given society may spread its own influences abroad, as well (Gudykunst et al. 1996). This occurs because the world continues to globalise (Holt et al. 2004). Globalisation is due to a number of factors, including increasingly interconnected economic systems, advances in telecommunication technologies and the internet, and the growth of global media, as well as increased world travel. Some have even suggested that homogenisation of cultures is characteristic of globalisation (Friedman 2000).