Attributes of Likeable Television Commercials in Asia
University of Otago, New Zealand
Advertisements that are liked tend to perform better than advertisements that irritate consumers (Stapel, 1994). Indeed, the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF) Copy Research Validity Project concludes that “ads that are liked outsell those that are not” (Haley and Baldinger, 1991, p. 29). The value of this finding has since been the subject of many discussions. For instance, numerous studies (Aaker and Stayman, 1990; Biel, 1990; Biel and Bridgwater, 1990; Du Plessis, 1994a, 1994b; Franzen, 1994; Greene, 1992; Haley and Baldinger, 1991; Hollis, 1995; Smit, Meurs, and Neijens, 2006; Stapel, 1994; Thorson, 1991; Walker, 1990; Walker and Dubitsky, 1994) suggest that advertising likeability is one of the most important predictors of persuasion and sales. “It pays to produce advertising that people like, and the more they like it the more they are persuaded by it,” echoed Biel (1990, p. 23). There are researchers who claim substantial value can be added to the assessment and optimization of advertising effectiveness if likeability is considered in conjunction with other appropriate measures (Walker and Dubitsky, 1994). Others, such as Kuse (1990) and Rossiter and Eagleson (1994), do not fully support advertising likeability as a valid criterion measure for advertising effectiveness. Despite the many spirited debates about the importance of likeability as a predictor of sales, what is missing in pertinent literature includes an understanding of what the main attributes of advertising likeability and “dislikeability” are among Generation Xers in Asia, and whether the importance of these attributes varies across countries and product categories?