An inside-out approach to integrated marketing communication: an international analysis
School of Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations, Queensland University of Technology
The Medill School, Northwestern University
University of Denver
School of Communications, Dongeui University
For the past decade, academics and practitioners alike have looked to research, textbooks, shared knowledge through conferences and seminars and field practice to define and apply integrated marketing communication (IMC) – that is, what it is, how it works in practice, and what it might most contribute to marketing communication and brand development in the future. Descriptive studies have investigated practitioner perceptions of IMC, organisational structures and challenges in implementation of IMC in the US and in other parts of the world (Duncan & Everett 1993; Petrison & Wang 1996; Kitchen & Schultz 1999; Swain 2004). Process models have been developed and theory drawn from these observations in an attempt to better understand the foundations of IMC and to identify future research directions (Schultz et al. 1993; Moriarty 1996; Hartley & Pickton 1999; Low 2000; Zahay et al. 2004). In more recent years, various writers have analysed and put forth alternative definitions of IMC, including attempts to identify its constructs (Kitchen et al. 2004; Schultz & Schultz 2004; Kliatchko 2005).