The Trade-off Model and its Extensions1

Dick Westwood
Tony Lunn

David Beazley
Then Research Bureau (Research International) Ltd



The main objective of this paper is to discuss the Trade-off Model a new approach to understanding and measuring consumer value systems and to illustrate some ways in which it is being applied to marketing problems. Tradeoff is, or course, only one of a number of theories and models which are being used increasingly in market research. Indeed the whole area of modelling is developing at a rapid pace and is, in the process, generating a certain amount of misunderstanding and controversy. A review of the 'state of the art' would go beyond the scope of this paper; in any case, comprehensive overviews can be found in books edited by Nicosia (1977) and Hughes (1974). We do however preface our discussion of trade-off with a few general points based upon practical experience over the past few years.