Chunyu Li, Ling Peng and Geng Cui, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2017, pp. 335-354
This paper describes how, based upon item response theory (IRT) and its differential item functioning (DIF), two studies were designed to address two important issues – adopting effective items or inviting proper respondents – involved in the identification of successful new concepts, to test new concepts with different levels of newness.
Julie Hootkin, Mainak Mazumdar and Ethan Rapp, ESOMAR, Wordwide Online Measurement, Athens, June 2001, pp. 167-181
To date, the majority of research metrics have been largely geared towards direct marketers. Recently more tools are becoming available to allow organizations to measure the brand effectiveness of their online campaigns using relevant metrics such as brand awareness, advertising awareness, element recall and purchase intent.
The retail environment has changed radically in recent years: customers have become increasingly complex, the nature of retail competition is changing and, consequently, the retail offer needs to be less about having adequate products at reasonable prices and more about offering a holistic package of choice, quality, convenience, price and service.