US consumers’ enthusiasm for Halloween costumes and candy bars shows no sign of waning this year, with spending set to reach $9bn, just short of 2017’s record $9.1bn.

According to the National Retail Federation’s (NRF) annual survey, carried out by Prosper Insights & Analytics, costumes will account for $3.2bn of the spend, with 68% of Halloween shoppers planning to buy them.

Another $2.7bn will go on decorations, and a further $2.6bn on candy, with greeting cards accounting for $400m.

More than 175 million Americans say they will take part in the festivities, spending an average of $86.79 – slightly up on last year’s figure of $86.13.

“The economy is good and consumer confidence is high, so families are ready to spend on Halloween this year,” NRF President and CEO Matthew Shay said.

“Retailers are stocking up to supply children, pets and adults with their favourite decorations, candy and costumes for the season.”

Some 48% of Americans say they will wear a costume for the celebrations, and 70% of those taking part plan to hand out candy; around 30% will take their children trick-or-treating.

When it comes to buying costumes and other accessories, 45% of people will head for discount stores, and 35% will go to specialist Halloween or costume shops. A further 25% will visit department stores, 24% will buy online, and 24% will go to grocery stores or supermarkets.

Costumes for pets continue to gain in popularity this year, with 18% of revellers saying they plan to dress up their cats and dogs, a rise from last year’s 16%. Pumpkin, hot dog, bumble bee, and devil costumes are the most popular for pets.

Of the 31.3 million Americans who plan to dress up their pets, millennials (aged 25-34) are the biggest group.

Princess costumes are the most popular among children, with 3.8 million choosing them; a further 2.5 million youngsters will dress as a superhero, 2.2 million as Batman characters, 1.9 million as Star Wars favourites, and another 1.9 million as a witch.

Dressing up remains as popular as ever with adults, too. Almost half of those taking part in festivities say they will don a costume. More than 7.2 million plan to dress as a witch, 2.5 million as a vampire, 2.1 million as a zombie, 1.9 million as a pirate, and 1.3 million as an Avengers character, such as Iron Man or Black Panther.

Sourced from NRF; additional content by WARC staff