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This research offers an in-depth analysis of how social media brand impressions reach Fans and Friends throughout Facebook, as opposed to just on brand Fan pages. The study profiles three major brands – Starbucks, Southwest Airlines, and Microsoft Bing – to show the impact of these impressions on Fans and Friends and help illustrate how brands today need to be thinking about their social marketing initiatives.
Advertisers involved with social marketing are beginning to recognise the sea change that is coming due to the spread of interactive media usage throughout many subpopulations of interest. Unfortunately, models of how social marketing theory and practice should evolve have not been forthcoming, severely limiting the development of appropriate media usage strategies. This paper seeks to resolve this dilemma, in part, via discussion of how social marketing goals and objectives are challenged and advanced in this new environment. Advertisers must face inherent opportunities and challenges, as failure to do so will leave social agendas unfinished or unresolved, particularly as new and younger generations become principal targets.
The findings that follow represent a compilation from the first five stages—or “Waves”—of a multi-stage Universal McCann (UM) global social-media study. As the agency explains: Established in 2006, Wave’s geographical coverage has mushroomed from just 15 countries in Wave 1 with a sample of 7,500 to 54 countries in Wave 5 polling more than 37,600 consumers in 2010.
Despite the increased usage of sponsorship activities by practitioners, there has been little research on the impact of sponsorship on building brand image. This research examines the influence of sponsorship on associations transfer from sponsored entity to the sponsor. In order to test all the hypotheses, two pre-tests and one main study were conducted. Empirical findings suggest that individuals who are exposed to the highly fitting partnership develop a stronger associative link between sponsor and sponsored entity than individuals who are exposed to the poorly fitting partnership. Results do not offer support that frequency of the partnership contributes to building the strength of the associative link between sponsor and sponsored entity. Most importantly, results indicate that the strength of the associative link between sponsor and sponsored entity is positively related to the transfer of associations from sponsored entity to sponsor.
This experiment tested the effectiveness of manipulated images of a Dove model, of varying shapes and sizes, to assess how or if exposure to an average or plus-size model would decrease women’s short-term internalisation of body image ideals. The objective of this study was to assess adult women’s beliefs about beauty and attractiveness in themselves and in others using several variables as possible predictors: exposure to thin-ideal or plus-size models, social comparison and societal views of thinness. Using an image of a model from the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty and three manipulated images of the same model, this study tested participants’ evaluations of each model’s attractiveness and thinness, and further tested participants’ level of self-discrepancy and societal views of thinness to assess if the campaign was at all effective in influencing the way women perceive beauty and attractiveness in themselves and in others. While exposure to the Dove model versus an ultra-thin model was not related to decreased levels of self-discrepancy across experimental groups, numerous other statistically significant relationships emerged based on exposure to the Dove or plus-size model. These and other findings are discussed.
Mobile advertising is a young, fast-growing part of marketing communications. Initially over-hyped, it is now starting to take off for real. What can we learn about it from the early academic research? Initial studies on the medium focused on "push" advertising using SMS - an issue complicated by issues of the constraints of consumer permission, acceptance and trust. Results have been mixed but suggest acceptance, especially by younger consumers, of well-executed SMS-based push advertising if the source is trusted, permission has been given, and the messages are relevant and/or entertaining. Researchers have started to broaden the agenda to cover push mobile advertising beyond SMS (e.g., using still or moving pictures and sound) and mobile as a "pull" or response medium (e.g., in combination with traditional media and promotions). For future research, emerging topics include device-readable printed codes in print ads and packaging; mobile search; location-based mobile communications and promotions; branded mobile entertainment, especially games; and user-generated mobile content and social networking. Many of these reflect the growth of the mobile Internet since the 2007 launch of Apple’s iPhone.
This article examines the state of newspapers and consumer magazine print advertising as reflected in the public research literature over the past 50 years. Its purpose is not to present a scientific and in-depth analysis of every research article on newspaper and magazine advertising published since 1960 but (1) to identify key findings that advance the interface between the academic study and practice of advertising and then (2) to develop research-based recommendations to guide future researchers. Articles were categorized into major content areas (readership, recall and recognition, executional/stylistic components, social issues, cross-media comparisons, engagement, and media models), and key findings are reported. Future research issues are suggested to advance advertising research on the two media analyzed.
This paper reports the findings from an in-depth, exploratory research project designed to understand how consumers create, use and behave in response to content on consumer review websites. Based on data from members of a consumer review site, it seeks to capture the experiences and behaviours of consumers, and to convey their voice as users of social media and other digital sources. Consumers, who are part of Generation C, constitute a significant proportion of the membership on consumer review websites. In this paper, the nature of this generational category is discussed and situated within their use of social media. Reflecting calls in this journal for an innovative and open research agenda, the methodology is designed to reveal new forms of informational behaviour among this group of consumers, who are at the forefront of social media adoption. The research reveals that activities within consumer review sites are embedded in broader social media behaviours, and that this influences the creation and use of consumer-generated and marketing content. The identification of such new forms of consumer activity forms the basis for further research and the incorporation of Generation C into successful marketing strategies.
Global consumer culture is recognised as a collection of common signs and symbols (e.g. brands) that are understood by significant numbers of consumers in urban markets around the world. International advertising is a powerful driving force of this evolving phenomenon. However, scholars have suggested that more comprehensive theoretical frameworks are needed to better understand international advertising in the global environment. Global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) and perceived brand globalness (PBG) represent two important constructs for studying international advertising in the context of global consumer culture. This review of GCCP and PBG highlights their past application and future potential for advancing international advertising theory, research and application. It also sheds light on the long-standing standardisation versus adaptation debate.
Past research has rarely included both intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations antecedents in predicting luxury consumption, and most studies have assumed that conspicuous antecedents are predominant in consumers’ motivations. The objective of this study is to build and test a model of the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic personal aspirations on consumer decision making in the luxury goods market. The findings of the study, conducted in France, show that extrinsic aspirations are more strongly related to conspicuous consumption than to quality search and self-directed pleasure, suggesting that extrinsically motivated consumers buy luxury brands mainly, but not wholly, as part of conspicuous consumption behaviour. However, intrinsic aspirations are much more strongly related to self-directed pleasure and quality search than are extrinsically aspirations, suggesting that these consumers are more focused on their own pleasure of ownership than on the display of conspicuous consumption. The findings suggest that practitioners should take into consideration both types of consumer motivation in the design of their marketing campaigns, in order to increase audience reach and improve brand loyalty in the long run.