At a glance

Focusing on the direct response is a narrow lens through which to judge online advertising.


  • Despite the changes in media since it was written, King’s ‘Scale of Immediacy’ continues to provide a future proof framework for thinking about how “different sorts of advertisement might work, for different people, in different circumstances, at different stages of time”. King recognised that while advertising can affect action it rarely affects action directly, lying on a continuum between the two scales of immediacy: indirect and direct.
  • Like all advertising, online advertising can work in different ways. And, like all advertising, by clearly defining the different roles it can play in building brands and delivering sales, we can better understand how to more effectively use and measure it online.
  • There are seven roles/objectives that when overlaid by three broad focuses for advertising (Equity, Saliency and Activation) provides a useful framework for exploring how online advertising works.