Of the $590.4bn spent on advertising worldwide last year, 24.5% – or $144.6bn – went to the Google/Facebook ‘Duopoly’. This is after Google’s payment of $26.7bn to its network members (third party platforms that host Google’s ads). The Duopoly’s share is up from 20.3% in 2017, and is more than double the 10.8% recorded in 2014. The pair are expected to increase their share again this year, up 4.1pp to 28.6% ($176.4bn).

Looking only at the internet ad market, the Duopoly took over half (56.4%) of ad money in 2018 – a share which is expected to rise to 61.4% this year. This would, in turn, result in the combined ad revenue for other online platforms declining for the first time (-0.7%, to $111.0bn). Online platforms beyond the Duopoly are expected to take 18.0 cents in the ad dollar this year, down from a peak of 19.6 in 2017.