Introduction and Literature Review
In a challenge to the assumption of human rationality and logical coherence in decision-making patterns, Tversky and Kahneman (1981) presented a set of 10 experiments which demonstrated systematic violation of these expectations. Famously, the effect of framing was demonstrated with the following scenario:
Imagine that the US is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been proposed. Assume that exact scientific estimates of the consequences of the programs are as followed.
Respondents were presented with the following groups of...