Introduction/literature review

Over the past 40 years, data collection for research has evolved from pencil and paper to computer-assisted telephone to PC-based to online (web) approaches. Over the past few years, researchers have compared the efficacy of some combination of pencil-and-paper (P&P), phone, and web-based surveys. There is some evidence that phone surveys result in more positive conclusions about customer satisfaction than P&P and web surveys (King & Delana, 2001). Other studies (e.g., Fan & Yan, 2010) examined response rates for web surveys, and there is concern about falling response rates with physicians in particular and web surveys in general (Cho, Johnson, & Vangeest, 2013). Still other studies investigated types of incentives used and how they influence participation (Vangeest, Wynia, Cummins, & Wilson, 2001). Clio et al. also looked at incentives and how they might improve participation. However, there are few published reports addressing what respondents prefer with regard to question types/formats (Couper, Traugott, & Lamias, 2001), survey length, and number of concepts presented in conjoint analysis (CA) tasks.