Introduction

Inattentive survey respondents can undermine the validity of survey research. Inattention is more likely in online surveys than in conventional paper and pencil surveys because of the high psychological distance between the survey administrators and the respondents and because of the ease of responding (Johnson, 2005). Market and social research companies try to identify inattentive respondents using so-called instructional manipulation checks (Paas, Dolnicar, & Karlsson, 2018): questions that can only be answered correctly if the respondent is paying attention. Failing instructional manipulation checks leads to the removal of inattentive respondents from the data set. Because many respondents fail such tests, market and social research companies must oversample by up to 30%. Oversampling increases the cost of surveys, undermines sample representativity, increases the burden on compliant survey respondents, and puts more pressure on ongoing recruitment of new survey panel members.