Jakubanecs and Supphellen

Cultural embeddedness of products: a new measurement of culture and its effects

Alexander Jakubanecs

Centre for Applied Research, Norwegian School of Economics (NHH)

Magne Supphellen

Department of Strategy and Management, Norwegian School of Economics (NHH)


In today’s world, characterised by greater-than-ever cultural diversity and openness to different cultural mind-sets, the cultural convergence view is common. Research on this view claims that national cultures converge as a result of globalisation and technological development (Levitt 1983; Bradley 1991; Jones 2000; Zarantonello et al. 2013), and the increasing demand and preference for global brands also helps strengthen the belief in cultural convergence (Steenkamp et al. 2003; Holt et al. 2004). However, extant research indicates that cultures may be resistant to the postulated convergence forces (Hirschman 1985; de Mooij 2000; Inglehart & Baker 2000; Rice & Steele 2004), and some research has even shown a strengthening of the effect of cultural orientation on consumer behaviour in advanced western societies (de Mooij 2000).