In an environment of intense advertising clutter and privacy concerns, consumers increasingly are avoiding advertisements they find annoying and untrustworthy. The popularity of advertisement blockers, particularly among younger Internet users, is just one indicator of this trend. Subscription digital-video services, such as Netflix, have boosted the availability of advertising-free content. In television, content owners are reducing advertising loads and advertisement length, with 6-second commercials becoming increasingly prevalent. The ultimate goal is to provide consumers with a lessened exposure to advertisements and, as a result, a better, more engaging experience.

In this shrinking world of advertising, how should advertisers measure that experience and its impact on their bottom line? Two years ago in the Journal of Advertising Research, I addressed the challenges of identifying metrics that mattered most in digital advertising (Fulgoni, 2016). Since then, much has changed in the way marketers potentially can reach and engage their target consumer segments, and, accordingly, marketers need radically new measurement systems to keep pace.