Dahlen, Rosengren and Karsberg


  • The effort put into advertising signals soft information about a brand and its offer; how the advertising communicates, rather than what it communicates, becomes particularly important.
  • Beyond consumer advertising, perceived effort also applies to business-to-business advertising and recruitment advertising. It extends beyond consumers and can have positive effects on other stakeholders, such as employees and investors.
  • The effects of advertiser effort on employees and investors are driven by the presumed influence of the advertising on consumers. Advertisers should be mindful about the extended effects of their consumer advertising.