The relative effectiveness of endorsers: The identity badge of CEOs and founders versus the attractiveness of celebrities

Using source-credibility and source-attractiveness models, this study examines the endorsement effectiveness of chief executive officers (ceos) and founders as compared with celebrities, especially when ceos and founders are not well-known or popular.


  • Celebrities, ceos, and founders differ in their ability to influence perceived advertisement effectiveness in the service sector.
  • When the identity badge of ceos and founders is signaled to consumers through their title, ceos and...
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