- A positive message was more persuasive when financial consequences of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) were highlighted; a negative message was more persuasive when nonfinancial consequences were highlighted.
- Negative messages were more impactful than positive ones, particularly when health-related(i.e., nonfinancial) consequences were the focal point of persuasion.
- A negative message was more persuasive than a positive one when social consequences of DUI (e.g., shame or social disapproval) were highlighted. When the physical consequences(e.g., injuries) were highlighted, a positive message was more effective.
- Negative messages were especially powerful when coupled with social behavior consequences rather than physical consequences.