Multimodal perceptual processing of cues in food ads: Do you smell what you see? Visual-induced olfactory imagery and its effects on taste perception and food consumption

In food advertisements, consumers often get inputs from only a few senses and rely on crossmodal interactions to represent those advertisement features from which they are not getting sensory stimulation.
Koubaa and Eleuch


  • The use of ambient scents in marketing is expensive and unreliable, but advertisers can achieve its benefits more efficiently by exposing consumers to visual inputs, which can trigger associated olfactory imagery.
  • Visual inputs can influence food perception, even when they are olfactory neutral, but olfactory-congruent inputs are stronger because the elaborate processing of these inputs makes the imagery more concrete.
  • Visual referents are important in the elaboration process of olfactory imagery and ...

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