Koubaa and Eleuch


  • The use of ambient scents in marketing is expensive and unreliable, but advertisers can achieve its benefits more efficiently by exposing consumers to visual inputs, which can trigger associated olfactory imagery.
  • Visual inputs can influence food perception, even when they are olfactory neutral, but olfactory-congruent inputs are stronger because the elaborate processing of these inputs makes the imagery more concrete.
  • Visual referents are important in the elaboration process of olfactory imagery and should be present on packaging or in advertising, because this can lead consumers to a stronger desire to eat.


Information from sensory food advertising is processed in different ways and at different levels of human cognition. Despite the extensive research published on the topic, several mechanisms of perceptual processing of advertisement information still are not understood well (Royne, 2018) and deserve further investigation. Although there is consensus that a relevant sensory stimulation activates a certain pattern of perceptual processing (MacInnis and Price, 1987), several sections of the perceptual route from stimulation to judgment remain unclear (Nanay, 2017).