• Managers should consider the broader effects of the various media types, because consumers’ perceptions of different media vary on the basis of their perceptions of a medium’s eco-harmful characteristics as well as perceptions of advertising on that medium.
  • Prior research has shown that eco-harmful media perceptions affect advertising effectiveness in eco-conscious countries; this study shows that managers in such countries have an incongruent view about consumers’ eco-harmful media perceptions.
  • Marketing managers and consumers have different levels of eco-conscious attitudes. These differences may explain the existing incongruent views.
  • Media perceived as more eco-harmful also are perceived as carrying advertising that is more irritating. In contrast, media perceived as less harmful are perceived as carrying advertising that is good and trustworthy.
  • This research provides the foundation for additional inquiry on green consumer and managerial perceptions affecting communication effectiveness.