How to use a spokesperson’s smile effectively: Smile intensity, consumer self-construal, and brand relationship determine ad effectiveness

Drawing from the social-functional perspective, this research explored the differences in consumers’ responses to two types of spokesperson’s smile: broad and slight.
Chang et al


  • When encountering consumers with an interdependent self-construal (interconnected with others), marketers should be careful to create a broad smile for the spokesperson in their advertising and draw consumers’ attention to the communa

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