Chan, Chen and Tse


  • Online media advertising helps brands project an image of warmth and friendliness.
  • Offline media carry a one-way, authoritative image that encourages consumers to perceive brands as more competent.
  • A warm brand gives consumers the impression of being sincere, modest, and helpful. When consumers associate a brand with higher competence, they likely will perceive the brand as more reliable in its claims.
  • The effect of online advertising on increased brand warmth is attenuated when the online platform is low in social interactivity; the effect of offline advertising on increased brand competence is attenuated when the offline platform is low in reputability.