Andreini, Fetscherin, and Zarantello


  • Measuring and subsequently managing chief executive officer (CEO) brand image is essential for CEOs and their companies, especially in the age of social media.
  • Advertising and public relations agencies could use the 9-item CEO brand-image scale as an integral part of existing corporate, communication, and brand-tracking studies to assess external audiences’ perceptions of CEOs’ personality, performance, and leadership.
  • The CEO brand-image scale could help advertising and public-relations agencies predict advertisements’ credibility by considering the CEO brand image, especially in social-media contexts.


The importance of people as brands increasingly has been recognized as a relevant issue for marketing communication (Thomson, 2006). This applies to many different types of people, such as movie celebrities (Luo, Chen, Han, and Park, 2010), sports celebrities (Yang and Shi, 2011), politicians (Shama, 1976), and chief executive officers (CEOs; Cho, Arthurs, Townsend, Miller, et al., 2016). In the last few decades, CEOs have received increasing attention because of the positive or negative effects they can have on companies, such as on company profits (Rule and Ambady, 2008), stock-market returns (Johnson, Young, and Welker, 1993), capital investments (Malmendier and Tate, 2005), the trust of the financial industry and analysts (Gaines-Ross, 2000), and overall corporate reputation (Love, Lim, and Bednar, 2017).