• Response to advertising was dynamic for television, but only through the strength of its synergy with prior online exposure.
  • Prior television exposure did not enhance the effectiveness of online advertising, however, which suggests that the synergy effect is asymmetric in the direction of television advertising.
  • Online advertising did not achieve a recent exposure effect. Rather, its role was ancillary, much along the lines of a catalytic effect.


A key benefit of cross-media campaigns is the potential for synergy, which can produce an enhanced effect beyond the corresponding additive effects of the individual media employed. Synergy is the value-added aspect of integrated marketing communications (Naik and Raman, 2003) and one of the three key considerations in developing an integrated marketing-communications campaign (Batra and Keller, 2016). Despite the synergy upside of cross-media advertising, synergy research has not reached its full potential yet, and cross-media effects on purchasing behavior have not been studied extensively, particularly with individual-level data (Assael, 2011).