Do billboard advertisements drive customer retention? Expanding the “AIDA” model to “AIDAR”

Many researchers neglect the wider capabilities of billboards. Managers deploy billboards to generate awareness, evaluated through awareness-tracking studies, thus reinforcing their beliefs.


  • Contrary to enduring beliefs, billboards can be effective across the hierarchy of effects, including customer-retention roles that are missing from traditional advertising typologies.
  • Combined with billboards’ resilience against blocking, this effectiveness substantially broadens their potential, increasing utility to executives seeking to influence existing customers.

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