• The PDF version of the newspaper yielded the highest memory performance, the greatest visual attention, and the highest electroencephalography (EEG) frustration index (defined as a “state of perceived irritation”) while participants watched advertising messages.
  • The website had the lowest performance in terms of visual attention and memorization.
  • The study provides relevant insights for marketers related to the choice of medium and to benefits in the practical use of neuroscience methods.


Today people are reached by advertising messages through different media, as television and newspapers have been flanked by new devices, such as smartphones and tablets. These devices are now widespread and essential objects in everyday life, giving marketers new opportunities to place advertisements. It is not clear, however, which device is the most effective in conveying promotional information.