Interviewer-observed paradata in mixed-mode and innovative data collection

In this research note, we address the potentials of using interviewer-observed paradata, typically collected during face-to-face-only interviews, in mixed-mode and innovative data collection methods that involve an interviewer at some stage (e.g., during the initial contact or during the interview).


Face-to-face interviewing has long been considered the 'gold standard' among data collection methods in the market and social research, which is mainly due to the long-time higher response rates, the better reaching of hard-to-reach target groups, and thus the less biased and more representative survey data (Schober, 2018; Villar & Fitzgerald, 2017). Another advantage of face-to-face interviewing is the unique opportunity for the interviewer to collect additional data, so-called interviewer-observed paradata, about the respondents and nonrespondents, their living environment, and the interview situation itself. These paradata allow researchers and practitioners to learn more about improving fieldwork processes and ensure...

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