Green advertising revisted: Conditioning virtual nature experiences

In green advertising research, images of pleasant nature scenery have been classified as vague, unspecific and possibly ineffective green claims, as opposed to substantive, informational claims.

Green advertising revisted: Conditioning virtual nature experiences

Patrick Hartmann and Vanessa Apaolaza-Ibáñez


After a surge in green advertising in the 1990s, the use of green advertising claims decreased for nearly a decade. At present, however, a revival of green advertising can be observed. Many major companies are again stressing their involvement with the environment, most often through advertisements depicting beautiful imagery of pristine nature, as seen in the recent corporate or product branding campaigns of Toyota, General Motors, Volkswagen, BP, Shell, Esso/Exxon, Total, Renault, etc. Following this development, although the first publications on green consumer behaviour and marketing appeared...

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