When you’re living through a period of significant change it’s sometimes hard to realise just how momentous those changes are. In 2019, who now remembers what life was like before Google, before the iPhone? But the shifts occasioned by rapid advances in technology during the past couple of decades have had a deep impact on many industries – not least advertising.

“Advertising alone is not working,” according to Sean Lyons, global CEO at R/GA – and technology is the reason, he told an audience at Advertising Week Europe (London, March 2019).

“It’s changed a lot of things about how we live and work today, it’s changed the expectations we have of products or services that we get from brands, it’s changed how we shop online and offline, it’s completely changed how we consume media. It’s also changed in terms of the data we’re willing to leave behind when we do all these activities.”