Creating a premium shift for a brand isn't a straightforward matter, according to Amelia Boothman, director of brand and innovation strategy at 1HQ. "It's not just enough to simply say you're premium. It's not about saying what you think you might be […] you have to have a deeper value - brand uniqueness, meaningfulness and an opportunity to participate and co-create."

Speaking at an event (London, January 2018) to launch a piece of research from MMR, she went on to ask how a brand can effectively communicate that premium notion. "How do you make sure that consumers can understand [that premium-ness] from a distance, on the shelves or as they're walking by down the high street."

That's where semiotics comes in, starting with an understanding of the codes within the category. The 1HQ approach is to divide these into three broad strands that Boothman defined as:

Residual: historical cues indicating where brands have been in the past; these often revolve around machines and what can be done with them in terms of packaging shapes, colours (the original Muller Fruit Corners would fall into this category, she suggested)