The speed of change in a digital world poses challenges to brands of all sorts, not least in assessing and moving forward with the constant stream of new technologies that are becoming available to both them and consumers. And having made decisions on what tech to use, they must then understand how it has worked and what, if any, difference it has made.

“How do we measure our new channels and new touchpoints against things that are relevant to us internally, but also to customers?” asked Ian Goulding, insight lead at UK banks RBS. An additional complication is that this question is often no longer category-specific; the use of AI and chatbots, for example, is becoming increasingly common as brands explore new ways to help customers.

RBS debuted a text-based chatbot called Cora at the start of 2017 and in early 2018 announced it was working on a new version, built to include a life-like “digital human” with whom customers can have a two-way verbal conversation on a computer screen, tablet or mobile phone.