Agencies and researchers are well aware of the gap between what consumers say they do and what they actually do – one reason for the growth in new research methodologies involving biometrics and neuroscience that measure unconscious responses. But agencies and advertisers are equally guilty of saying – or knowing – one thing but practising quite another.

Work Research talked to 150 agency planners, buyers and clients, as well as carrying out two dozen interviews with senior practitioners, “to really get an idea [of] what was going on in the industry”, founding partner Justin Gibbons told the Mediatel Future of Brands conference (London, February 2019). His conclusion: there is a “brand gap”.

By this he means that despite there being a well-established body of knowledge – best practice in terms of how media budgets should be split, about the balance between brand and response – people simply aren’t acting on it.