Introduction

In marketing research, we usually explore what consumers need and want regarding products and services. But what about how they feel about how their genders are being represented by brands? Gender roles and stereotypes are changing and are being re-signified, debated and even questioned in our cultural context. For example, the democratization of a traditional gender order is being fostered by the legislation and the public policies. In that regard, women's sexual and reproductive autonomy as well as a gender inclusive education through a comprehensive sex education curriculum is beginning to be implemented at schools, same-sex marriage is being recognized as well as the identity of transgender persons. The increase of days for paternity leaves are under debate. Furthermore, some women have been elected as presidents in the last decades, legislative agencies and some companies are empowering women to facilitate the process of becoming leaders. States are conducting time use surveys to understand how much unpaid domestic and care work is still being a responsibility of women, although women are increasingly being incorporated in the paid workforce. Social movements like #Metoo or#NiUnaMenos against male sexual harassment and femicides, respectively, are growing at a global and regional scope. Traditional gossip TV shows are debating about feminisms (Alcaraz, 2018) and many cultural consumptions are using the slogans of women empowerment to sell their products. Finally, today, different gender representations - both traditional and non-traditional - coexist in ads, movies, series and cartoons. In this cultural context, we aimed to understand how consumers perceive these changing representations (or "the changing gender order"), what are the new emerging tensions and how brands can play a role in this challenging arena..

Background