Display of battery items in web and mail surveys: Grids versus item-by-item and radio versus wide buttons

How to display questions that are part of a battery in self-administered surveys is an important decision.


Self-administered surveys are increasingly used to gather information by survey and market researchers (Olson et al., 2021). Mixed-mode mail and web "web-push" designs permit those who do not have easily accessible home Internet access to be included in the study, overcoming a problem of coverage with web surveys alone (Dillman et al., 2014). Achieving similar measurement quality across modes, however, may require making the design of the questionnaire as similar as possible, also known as unified mode design. Moreover, as web surveys can be completed on computers or mobile devices, surveys with a web component are also...

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