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TV advertising is a key brand-building tool, and remains a powerful marketing channel despite the rise of digital media. It is generally regarded as a highly effective medium, particularly when used to deliver emotional, rather than rational, messaging. While most viewing remains live, digital technology has fragmented audiences and made TV viewing possible at any time on a range of devices. That makes calculating TV audiences a key measurement challenge.

Key Reading

Important papers from across the Warc database

This best practice paper argues that television is the dominant mass medium in the minds of major marketers and consumers. Television remains the primary communications channel when launching a new brand or supporting an existing brand, despite the rise in popularity of digital channels of recent years.
How media consumption habits have changed, specifically through the multiscreening trend.
Tips for compelling TV ads, including guidance on using emotion and scheduling for maximum effect.
Viewing behaviour continues to follow some law-like patterns that have remained the same for 40 years.
This tool allows you to build your own adspend datasets for individual media channels, including TV.

Case Study

This case study describes how cider brand Orchard Thieves Cider used a multichannel approach to appeal to Millennials to launch into the market in Ireland.

Case Study

This case study describes how Millers, a fashion retailer, drove awareness and engagement to increase sales in the Australian market.

Case Study

This case study looks at how Dogs Trust, an animal welfare charity, raised awareness and increased footfall to its centres in the United Kingdom through the #specialsomeone campaign.

Case Study

This case study details how the NSPCC, a UK children's charity, improved attitudes towards the charity and increased fundraising donations in the UK.

Case Study

This case study details how Nutmeg, an online investment management company, increased customer numbers in the UK through an animated TV spot.

Case Study

This case study describes how Coors Light, the US beer brand, remedied declines in sales and penetration by creating Climb On, a campaign that echoed a desire shared by all people - not just men: to overcome obstacles.
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This paper describes a system by Médiamétrie which measures the audience for TV programmes in France across four screens: TV, desktop, tablet and smartphone.


This article explains how brands can create video creative that is engaging and brand-centric in order to reward viewers with relevance or entertainment and prevent early skipping.


This article provides marketers with information and guidance about determining the optimal TV ad length.

Research Paper

This paper explores the different types of TV audiences in Latin America and attempts to identify any changes in TV consumption within the region, using both quantitative and qualitative approaches.


This article advises on how brands can adapt television commercials (TVCs) to create effective and engaging mobile content.


This article looks at global television adspend, which is expected to fall 2.5% to US$197bn in 2017, due in part to contraction in two of the three largest markets: the US and China.
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  1. Article

    This report summarises the data stored in Warc's Adspend Database, which tracks advertising expenditure for eight media in 96 individual markets back to 1980. The report outlines major shifts in the allocation of advertising budgets by media channel and global region.

  2. Article

    This report examines global trends in digital marketing as digital is capturing a greater portion of new marketing dollars and overtaking TV in many markets.

  3. Article

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze both the relationship between spot length and unaided recall in a real-world environment and the direct effect on recall of other advertising break-planning variables.
  4. Article

    This article seeks to understand the habits of linear TV users as online viewing moves through its infancy and into the mainstream.

  5. Article

    This article provides an overview of the longer term effects of marketing actions and argues that strategic marketing decision making needs to account for both the short-term and long-term effects of marketing.

  6. Article

    This article provides marketers with information and guidance about combining TV and digital media strategies.

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