SAN MATEO: Companies such as Facebook, Pandora and Twitter have quickly established themselves as major players in the US mobile display advertising market, a new study has indicated.

The 2012 US Mobile Advertising Market Sizing and Vendor Market Shares report, from International Data Corporation, the market intelligence provider, said that publishers controlled 52% of the market last year, up from 39% in 2011.

"Mobile ad networks are losing market share to publishers, and we expect them to lose even more going forward," said Karsten Weide, Vice President of Media & Entertainment at IDC.

"Networks, especially independent ones, are entering a difficult phase, in which, with an ever smaller share of revenue, they'll have to compete with publishers, which will only grow in strength," he added.

Facebook was the leading mobile publisher selling display advertising, with $234m gross revenue. It was followed by Pandora, on $229m, and Twitter, on $117m.

The top three spots in the ad network segment were Google, with $243m, Millennial Media, with $151m and Apple on $125m.

Overall, mobile adspend in the US grew 88% in 2012 to reach $4.5bn while mobile advertising's share of all total digital advertising increased to 11% from the previous year's 7% share.

Mobile search ads accounted for 61% of total mobile spending, worth $2.8bn, while display advertising increased its share from 31% to 39%, worth $1.7bn.

Data sourced from IDC; additional content by Warc staff