In 2016, those Warc readers interested in shopper marketing were exploring the use of technology, whether that was how it affects the purchase journey or how it can be used to deliver insights.

The most-read article, 10 shopper trends, highlighted the need to move away from cardboard signage designed to interrupt the shopper journey, towards integrated communications and experiences that help to form that journey.

The second-most read, The new technology in shopper marketing, looked more specifically at some of the ways tech, such as augmented reality, facial recognition and beacons, can be used to influence shoppers

Alibaba is best known as an e-commerce business, but in the third most-read article, How Alibaba uses big data to understand China's shoppers, Danfeng Li, the company's director of big data and technology, explained to Warc how it can integrate its PC, internet and app data with first party data collected in stores to create powerful data models to help offline retailers.

In fourth place, Through the purchase funnel: Extending brand presence through the entire shopper journey explored ways in which the "artificial divide" of marketing and sales can be drawn together and noted that brands and retailers need to work more closely together.

Advice from a researcher specialising in eye-tracking studies was the fifth most-read article. Eye-track shopper browsing: uncovering the emotions that truly motivate purchases observed that most purchase decisions are made subconsciously: as little as 10% of sensory information makes it to the conscious level, with the rest being jumbled together in the subconscious, where emotional triggers, including colour, memory associations and package design, hold sway.

Data soured from Warc