Boy culture – an ecological systems approach to generate insights

Marsha E. Williams
Harvest Research Group LLC, United States


Urie Bronfenbrenner, Ph.D., is considered the father of human ecology because of his application of what primarily had been a biological perspective of understanding organisms as part of a larger system, to an ecological context for understanding human development. His Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) recognizes individuals as a part of a system of relationships and interactions that comprise their environment – relationships with individuals, organizations and institutions, value systems, and so on.

In order to understand human development, Bronfenbrenner contends, one needs to take into consideration four levels of interactions, each affecting and being affected by the other (1979).