The effectiveness of regulatory (in)congruent ads: the moderating role of an ad’s rational versus emotional tone
Messages that are factually equivalent, but framed differently, lead to differences in persuasion (Yi & Baumgartner 2009). Recently, framing in terms of outcome focus (i.e. a promotion versus prevention outcome focus) have received increased academic interest (e.g. Kramer & Yoon 2007; Yi & Baumgartner 2009). This type of framing has often been linked to the self-regulatory focus theory of Higgins (1997) (Yi & Baumgartner 2009). This theory proposes that two basic motivational systems regulate human behaviour: (1) a promotion focus, or a focus on ideal goals (i.e. hopes and wishes, or the maximisation of successes or positive results, e.g. I hope that using sunscreen will protect me), and (2) a prevention focus or a focus on ought goals (i.e. responsibilities and duties or the minimisation of losses or negative results, e.g. I should use sunscreen to avoid the negative consequences of the sun).