Twenty years of IMC: a study of CEO and CMO perspectives in the Asia-Pacific region

Jerry G. Kliatchko

University of Asia and the Pacific, Philippines

Don E. Schultz

Northwestern University

Introduction

Twenty years after its inception, integrated marketing communications (IMC) continues to stir debate, discussion and, in some cases, confusion. In the beginning, IMC was controversial because it challenged the planning and operating principles of advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing and public relations. It encouraged a ‘customer first’, rather than a ‘tool first’, approach, and suggested coordination and alignment among various functional departments and groups. A natural resistance to IMC developed among functional managers because it appeared to make obsolete many generally accepted marketing principles and practices.