a reply to the comment of franke and andrews on 'The economics of tobacco advertising: spending, demand and the effects of bans'

Kent M. Lancaster
and
Alyse R. Lancaster
University of Miami

BACKGROUND

The purpose of our study, 'The economics of tobacco advertising: spending, demand and the effects of bans' (Lancaster & Lancaster 2003), was to examine most of the published evidence worldwide on the effects of aggregate advertising and of advertising bans on aggregate cigarette and tobacco demand. This broad and polemic literature spans more than 30 years and includes an array of research designs, econometric models, dependent and independent variables, data, statistical procedures, and statistical assumptions. Much of it has been vigorously challenged across these dimensions as well, including criticism for dated and weak study designs, specification bias, poor and incomplete data, and violations of statistical assumptions. From this complex and contradictory literature, researchers, scholars, policy makers, managers, activists and interested readers are left to their own resources and expertise to make sense of it. Those with particular points of view or objectives likely will find studies to support them.