Biometric Measures for Interactive Advertising Research

Rafal Ohme, Michal Matukin, and Beata Pacula-Lesniak

Neuroscientific Contributions to Marketing Research

Modern psychology reveals that some decisions, including economic ones, are made intuitively, automatically, and without any conscious control or effort (Bargh 1997; Bornstein and Pittman 1992; Dijksterhuijs 2004; Dixon 1971, 1981; Greenwald and Banaji 1995; Hassin et al. 2005, Jarymowicz 2001; Kihlstrom 1999; Murphy and Zajonc 1993; Ohme 2003, 2007, 2009; Uleman and Bargh 1989; Wilson 2002; Zajonc 1968, 1980, 1998). Conscious decisions in turn appear frequently based on emotional rather than rational cues (Bechara, Damasio, and Damasio 2000; Damasio 1999; Raghunathan and Tuan Pham 1999; Sayegh, Anthony, and Perrewé 2004) or triggered by subconscious stimulation (Murphy and Zajonc 1993; Ohme 2001, 2003, 2007, 2009; Zajonc 1968). People are not as rational as previously thought; for supporting this notion with empirical evidence, Daniel Kahneman even was awarded a Noble Prize in economics in 2002 (Kahneman 2003; see also Kahneman, Slovic, and Tversky 1982; Kahneman and Tversky 1973, 1979).