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Inspirational customers dialogues: The journey behind the global evaluation of the 2013 IKEA catalogue
Frederic Gennart and Tom De Ruyck, ESOMAR, 3D Digital Dimensions, Boston, June 2013
This paper demonstrates how IKEA, the world's largest furniture retailer, evaluated the 2013 edition of its catalogue through Market Research Online Communities (MROCs) in Germany, Italy, Poland, US and China.
This paper demonstrates how IKEA, the world's largest furniture retailer, evaluated the 2013 edition of its catalogue through Market Research Online Communities (MROCs) in Germany, Italy, Poland, US and China. The annual catalogue is IKEA's main communication channel globally and IKEA needed to address a key marketing challenge global brands are confronted with: how to ensure that global communication efforts stay locally relevant. The paper also shows what's next for MROCs and shares best practices in moving an existing qualitative project online, creating internal buy-in for emerging methods, engaging internal audiences with the results, reactivating a MROC and using a MROC as the backbone while fusing it with other qualitative, quantitative and observational research techniques.
The effects of source credibility and message variation on mail survey response behaviour
Stavros P. Kalafatis, Debra Riley, Markos H. Tsogas and Jimmy Clodine-Florent, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 54, No. 3, 2012, pp. 391-406
Grounded on persuasive communications theory, the impact of source credibility and message variation on response behaviour towards a mail survey on a sample of the general public are examined.
A new tool for pre-testing direct mail
Margaret Faulkner and Rachel Kennedy, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2008, pp. 469-490
This paper outlines a new pre-testing tool designed to identify which piece of direct mail will generate the best in-market response.
This paper outlines a new pre-testing tool designed to identify which piece of direct mail will generate the best in-market response. The development process is described (interviews with fundraisers and donors as well as six pilot studies). The paper also details an in-market test of the tool in a fundraising setting. Importantly, the tool was tested on direct mail from split-run tests where response was measured in terms of real donations. Test A identified the winner, which was consistent with the in-market winner, and Test B showed no difference in results, consistent with in-market performance. These initial results show promise for the tool as a practical resource for market researchers and their clients.
Consumers’ attitudes toward unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail marketing methods: intrusiveness, perceived loss of control, and irritation
Mariko Morimoto and Susan Chang, The Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 7, No. 1, Fall 2006
Using Psychological Reactance as the framework, this study sought to understand consumer attitudes towards two major direct marketing techniques: unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail.
Using Psychological Reactance as the framework, this study sought to understand consumer attitudes towards two major direct marketing techniques: unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail. In particular, audience perceptions of advertising intrusiveness, perceived loss of control (as conceptualized by Psychological Reactance), and irritation regarding the direct marketing techniques were investigated. The results of this survey study (N=119) indicated that recipients perceived unsolicited e-mails as more intrusive and irritating than postal direct mail. This study contributed to the theory of Psychological Reactance by indicating that recipients did not feel a loss of control regarding spam, thus Psychological Reactance was not fully supported in the context of these marketing communication techniques. Suggestions for direct marketing practitioners conclude the paper.
Low response and purchase rates in the automotive industry. Dealing with typical problems in direct marketing campaigns
Johannes Ruhland and Wendy Gersten, ESOMAR, Automotive Conference, Lausanne, March 2004
Based on a survey among 22 direct marketing experts and in-depth project experiences within automotive industry, the authors identify two key issues: first, when the success of direct marketing campaigns should be measured; and second, when the results of a campaign should be used for selecting the target group for a new campaign.
Based on a survey among 22 direct marketing experts and in-depth project experiences within automotive industry, the authors identify two key issues: first, when the success of direct marketing campaigns should be measured; and second, when the results of a campaign should be used for selecting the target group for a new campaign. As a solution to the latter, i.e. too few cases for learning a stable and accurate scoring model, we propose the semi-supervised modeling approach when selecting learning cases: an initial classifier is learned on the ideal participants from a previous campaign. This classifier is employed to select supplementary cases. This is a research technique that has been applied in other domains for several years, but thus far not in (direct) marketing.
Can recipients of sales flyers be segmented?
Mogens Bjerre and Marcus Schmidt, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2003, pp. 375-392
This paper investigates the possibility of identifying clusters among consumers receiving sales flyers from retailers (supermarkets, etc.).
This paper investigates the possibility of identifying clusters among consumers receiving sales flyers from retailers (supermarkets, etc.). First, flyers are defined and then consumers' perception of flyers is analysed, based on a representative panel. According to the analysis, three clusters are identified. The clusters possess quite different characteristics - not just in relation to their perceptions and attitudes towards flyers, but also when looking at demographic characteristics.
The contribution of direct mail advertising to average weekly unit sales
C. Todd Sherron, Eric M. Lippold and Marla Royne Stafford, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 2, June 2003, pp. 173-179
This article examines the contribution of direct mail advertising to average weekly unit sales of a national fast food franchisee.
This article examines the contribution of direct mail advertising to average weekly unit sales of a national fast food franchisee. Two different types of direct mail advertising are used, both independently and in conjunction with local and national advertising. Results of a field study indicate that one type of direct mail (a shopper) contributes significantly to sales when used independently. When combined with national or local advertising, however, the contribution level of this shopper decreases. Conversely, a direct mail insert combined with many others inserts into one single envelope is much more powerful when utilized in conjunction with national advertising. In fact, results show that this latter combination of direct mail with national advertising contributes more to average weekly unit sales than any other combination. Implications are offered and future research is suggested.
Generating Scoring Models with Auxilary Target Variables and Data Bridging
Johannes Ruthland and Wendy Gersten, ESOMAR, Consumer insights conference, Madrid, April 2003
The authors present an innovative way to deal with a frequent practical problem in CRM and direct marketing projects: the lack of cases with known target behavior.
The authors present an innovative way to deal with a frequent practical problem in CRM and direct marketing projects: the lack of cases with known target behavior. Usually, this makes learning scoring models that can be utilized for selecting the target group of a new campaign infeasible. The approach presented resorts to auxiliary target variables whose nature is derived through analogous induction and whose similarity can be calculated by using odds ratio and Euclidian distance. We will illustrate how the methodology works on a practical example taken from the automotive industry.
Optimising the effect of hybrid marketing campaigns
Meta Menkveld and Jeroen Rietberg, ESOMAR, Online Audience Conference, Cannes, June 2002
The Internet makes it easier to break target groups down to the level of 'one to one' marketing. Although this marketing dream is definitively a technical possibility, in practice it appears to be very difficult.
The Internet makes it easier to break target groups down to the level of 'one to one' marketing. Although this marketing dream is definitively a technical possibility, in practice it appears to be very difficult. People do not like to be approached uninvited via e-mail and the effect of commercial e-mail campaigns is unclear, however well targeted they might be. It is in this context that TPG Post, the Dutch-based (international) postal services company, decided to develop the E-mail Monitor in cooperation with Pro Active International. As the focus of this paper is on consumer behaviour, the authors have targeted the first stage of the E-mail Monitor, which is used to determine what combination of mail and e-mail can best be used to achieve the desired effect.
Segmenting Consumers, Based on Their Perceptions for Circulars
Mogens Bjerre and Marcus Schmidt, Forum for Advertising Research, May 2001
In this article we investigate the possibility of identifying clusters, as a possible base for segmentation among consumers receiving circulars.
In this article we investigate the possibility of identifying clusters, as a possible base for segmentation among consumers receiving circulars. Initially we define circulars and use this definition to analyze a representative panel of consumers’ perceptions of circulars. Based on this analysis we found three clusters possessing quite different characteristics – not just in relation to their perceptions and attitudes towards circulars, but also when using socio demographic characteristics.
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